Epilepsy Penticton - Epilepsy is an ancient Greek term which literally translates to "seizure." This common neurological disorder is typified by seizures which are usually indications or transient signs of abnormal, excessive or hyper-synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Epilepsy typically happens in young children or those individuals who are more than the age of 65, although, it could occur at whatever time. All over the globe, more than fifty million people have epilepsy. Approximately 2 out of every 3 cases are discovered in developing countries. Epileptic seizures can likewise result as a consequence of brain surgery and patients recovering from such surgery may experience them.
Usually, epilepsy is controlled with medication even though it is not commonly treated this way. More than 30% of patients with epilepsy do not have seizure control even on the best obtainable medications. In several cases, an operation can be considered difficult. In several cases, not all epilepsy syndromes are considered permanent. Some kinds are confined to particular stages of childhood.
The disorder of epilepsy must not be just considered one single disorder. However, it must be noted as a syndrome with variously divergent indications which involve episodic abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Seizure types are organized primarily based on whether the source of the seizure is localized as in partial or focal onset seizures or whether they are more generalized or distributed seizures.
Partial seizures are then further divided on the extent to which area of the consciousness is affected. For instance, if it is unaffected, then it is considered a simple partial seizure, whereas otherwise, it is called a complex psychomotor or complex partial seizure. Secondary generalization is the term when a partial seizure may spread within the brain. Generalized seizures involve loss of consciousness and are divided according to the effect on the body. These include atonic, grand mal or tonic clonic, clonic or tonic, myoclonic or petit mal seizures.
Sometimes children can exhibit certain behaviours which are easily mistaken for epileptic seizures that are not actually caused by epilepsy. These behaviours consist of: inattentive staring, benign shudders, self gratification behaviours including head banging, nodding and rocking, conversion disorder, that is flailing and jerking of the head often in response to intense personal stress as such will incur in a situation of physical abuse. Conversion disorder can be distinguished from epilepsy as the episodes do not involve self-injury, incontinence or occur during sleep.
There are many types of epilepsy syndromes just as there are kinds of seizures. Classifying epilepsy includes more facts about the patient and the episodes, as well as the seizure kind alone. It likewise includes expected causes and clinical features such as behaviour during the seizure.
Epilepsy comprises more than forty various kinds, amongst which are: frontal lobe epilepsy, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, childhood absence epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, infantile spasms, LennoxGastaut syndrome, status epilepticus, limbic epilepsy, Rett syndrome, abdominal epilepsy, temporal lobe epilepsy, limbic epilepsy, Jacksonian seizure disorder, Lafora disease and photosensitive epilepsy, among others.
Each type of epilepsy will have its own EEG findings, usual age of onset, unique combination of seizure type, own kinds of prognosis and treatment. The classification which is most common divides epilepsy syndromes by distribution of seizures and by location. This is determined by how the seizures appear, by EEG and by cause. Syndromes are divided into localization-related epilepsies, epilepsies of unknown localization and generalized epilepsies.
usually localization-related epilepsies are referred to as partial or focal epilepsies. These types arise from an epileptic focus, a tiny part of the brain which serves as the irritant driving the epileptic response. In contrast, generalized epilepsies arise from several independent foci and are called multifocal epilepsies. These could involve epileptic circuits that affect the entire brain. At this time it has not been determined whether epilepsies of unknown localization happen from more widespread circuits or from a part of the brain.
Click to Download the pdf