Penticton Medical Clinics - The medical term "Respiratory Disease" encompasses a large variety of pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues which make gas exchange possible. Respiratory disease comprises conditions of the bronchi, upper respiratory tract, bronchioles, trachea, alveoli, pleura, pleural cavity as well as the muscles and nerves responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting such as the common cold for instance, to life-threatening conditions like for instance lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, and bacterial pneumonia.
The study of Pulmonology focuses on respiratory diseases, whilst those specializing doctors in this particular area are known as a pulmonologist. Medical practitioners in this field can likewise be referred to as: a respiratory medicine specialist, a thoracic medicine specialist, a chest medicine expert and a respirologist.
There are lots of classifications used for the many respiratory diseases; they can be classed by the tissue or organ involved or can be classed by the pattern and type of connected symptoms and signs, or based on the cause of the disease or etiology.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
This particular disease, which includes emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, are characterized by a high neutrophil count.
Allergic reactions are a common cause of acute respiratory disease. This is caused by the exposure to various agents and foods. Common allergens which are found in foods can consist of lemon, radish, sea foods like for example some prawns and fatty fish, bananas, peanuts, pomegranates, dairy and ice creams, lemon, arrowroot, berries and lady's finger. Weather conditions can also affect various people because dusty and sandy weather conditions during summertime may make the quality of air poor for individuals who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways consisting of the bronchioles, alveoli and bronchi become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, hence making it more difficult to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Diseases are a category of respiratory disease that is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These RLD's may cause increased lung stiffness and incomplete lung expansion. IRDS or also known as Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an example.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Respiratory infections can affect all parts of the respiratory system. These infections are usually divided into either a lower respiratory tract infection or an upper respiratory tract infection.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common kind of upper respiratory infection is the common cold. Infections of the upper respiratory tract particular organs can include pharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, sinusitis and laryngitis are also in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common lower respiratory tract infection is pneumonia. This particular lung infection would typically be a result of Streptococcus within the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large reason for pneumonia across the globe. Different viruses and fungi could lead to pneumonia also, for example pneumocystis pneumonia and acute respiratory syndrome.
Respiratory tumours are either malignant or benign.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Diseases of the pleural cavity consists of emphysema and mesothelioma. A build up of fluid within the pleural cavity is called a pleural effusion. This can be due to situations such as cirrhosis and congestive heart failure, because the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here may even take place from TB, pleura inflammation, mesothelioma, pulmonary embolism and various conditions.
A hole in the pleura which covers the lung and permits air in the lung to escape into the pleural cavity is called a pneumothorax. In this instance, the affected lung collapses similar to a balloon which is inflated. A tension pneumothorax is a severe form of this where the air cannot escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure eventually gets bigger compressing the blood vessels and the heart, leading to a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases are certain conditions that affect the pulmonary flow. Examples of these diseases comprise: Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary edema and Pulmonary embolism.
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